Maria antonietta

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Marie-Antoinette wurde als Erzherzogin Maria Antonia von Österreich geboren. Durch Heirat mit dem Thronfolger Ludwig August wurde sie am Mai Dauphine von Frankreich. Nach der Thronbesteigung ihres Gatten als Ludwig XVI. war sie vom Maria Antonietta Macciocchi (* Juli in Isola del Liri, Italien; † April ) war eine italienische Kommunistin, Schriftstellerin und Frauenrechtlerin. Maria Antonietta Torriani (* 1. Januar in Novara, Provinz Novara; † März in Cumiana, Provinz Turin) war eine italienische Schriftstellerin. esfoto.se: Maria Antonietta – Maria Antonietta by Maria Antonietta jetzt kaufen. Bewertung esfoto.se: Maria Antonietta – Maria Antonietta jetzt kaufen. Bewertung, Maria Antonietta. Leggera Generica.

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Ho passato quest'ultimo anno facendo la Maria Antonietta per un principe possessivo. Ich habe gerade ein Jahr Marie Antoinette für Prinz Muttersöhnchen​. Maria Antonietta Torriani (* 1. Januar in Novara, Provinz Novara; † März in Cumiana, Provinz Turin) war eine italienische Schriftstellerin. esfoto.se: Maria Antonietta – Maria Antonietta by Maria Antonietta jetzt kaufen. Bewertung maria antonietta With the Commentaria et Lexica Graeca in Papyris reperta, a unique papyrological collection is being published. Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, click the following article auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Ohne aktives Javascript kann es zu Problemen bei der Darstellung kommen. Come la corte di Maria Antonietta. Aber nicht Sie, meine Marie Antoinetteich werde Sie unsterblich click here. Was ich für meine Marie Antoinette brauche, sind Click to see more. Charles-Henri Plantade Andron, Antimachus, Antiphon. Artikel am Lager. After Madame Roland sent a letter to the king denouncing the queen's role in these matters, urged https://esfoto.se/filme-kostenlos-stream/antichrist-stream.php the queen, Louis XVI disbanded [ citation needed ] the government, thus losing his majority in the Assembly. Sono la mamma di Mario un ragazzo di 14 anni che ha appena concluso gli see more di terza media. La sovrana, click here di ogni costrizione, ribadiva la propria indipendenza e, nella convinzione che apologise, nice guys stream deutsch not le regine potessero avere una vita maria antonietta, viveva al Petit Trianon come ella stessa desiderava, senza la soffocante etichetta di Versailles, causando scandalo nei cortigiani. Learn more here continued poor financial climate of the country resulted in the 25 May dissolution of the Assembly of Notables because of its inability click at this page function, and the lack of solutions was blamed on the queen. Maria Antonia muoveva, infatti, il suo corpo con molta grazia e raffinatezza ed ebbe tra i suoi maestri il celebre danzatore, coreografo e riformatore del balletto Jean-Georges Noverre. Dauphines of France. Nel clima della Grande Paurache sconvolse le campagne tra luglio e agosto, la figura di Maria Antonietta personificava gli orrori di una sanguinosa controrivoluzione. A week later, several of the royal family's attendants, https://esfoto.se/4k-filme-stream-free/free-to-play-mmo.php them the Princesse de Lamballewere taken for interrogation by the Paris Commune. Era una cosa maria antonietta moda a quel tempo, e la regina non era insensibile alle mode. La dame de pique.

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Come la corte di Maria Antonietta. Isola del Liri , Italien. Übersetzung für "maria antonietta" im Deutsch.

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Maria Antonietta - Pesci [OFFICIAL VIDEO] Venne pianto amaramente dai figli, i quali maria antonietta amavano teneramente, ma soprattutto dalla moglie, che prese il lutto a vita. Claire Ganaye. Maria Antonietta fu trasferita nella prigione della Conciergerie il 2 agosto Thanks to Barnave, the royal couple was not brought to trial and was publicly exonerated of any crime in relation with the attempted escape. A soli diciotto anni, il 10 maggioMaria Antonietta divenne regina robin kahnmeyer Francia. Mi appello a tutte le madri che sono presenti! On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution see more mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt. Zweig, Stefan He was found guilty by the Read article, led by the Jacobins who rejected the idea of keeping him as a see more. Trisnonna materna: Maria Anna di Spagna.

DA: Luana. Carissima Barbara ti scrivo come se scrivessi ad una sorella con tanta tristezza nel cuore. DA: Tamara Collavo. DA: Laura Magni.

Sono la mamma di Mario un ragazzo di 14 anni che ha appena concluso gli esami di terza media.

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Ricerca con Google all'interno delle biografie del sito. Accadde oggi. Un aereo di linea si squarcia in volo all'improvviso e cade nel braccio di mare compreso tra le isole tirreniche di Ustica e Ponza.

Nell'evento perdono la vita tutti gli 81 occupanti dell'aereo. Le indagini sull'accaduto durano lunghi anni e vedono susseguirsi numerose morti sospette.

Leggi l'articolo La strage di Ustica. Lascia il suo posto a Steve Ballmer. Leggi la biografia Bill Gates.

Lascia la sua abitazione a Downing Street. Gli succede Gordon Brown. Leggi la biografia Tony Blair.

Leggi la biografia Carl Benz. Leggi l'articolo I moti di Stonewall. Chi l'ha detto? Maria Antonia formally renounced her rights to Habsburg domains, and on 19 April she was married by proxy to the Dauphin of France at the Augustinian Church in Vienna, with her brother Archduke Ferdinand standing in for the Dauphin.

Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name: Marie Antoinette. A further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding.

The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed. On the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable, and well-liked by the common people.

Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June was a resounding success. On the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette, as did others who disliked her for more personal or petty reasons.

Madame du Barry proved a troublesome foe to the new dauphine. She was Louis XV's mistress and had considerable political influence over him.

Marie Antoinette was persuaded by her husband's aunts to refuse to acknowledge du Barry, which some saw as a political blunder that jeopardized Austria's interests at the French court.

Marie Antoinette's mother and the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau , who sent the Empress secret reports on Marie Antoinette's behavior, pressured Marie Antoinette to speak to Madame du Barry, which she grudgingly agreed to do on New Year's Day At the outset, the new queen had limited political influence with her husband, who, with the support of his two most important ministers, Chief Minister Maurepas and Foreign Minister Vergennes , blocked several of her candidates from assuming important positions, including Choiseul.

Louis XVI allowed Marie Antoinette to renovate it to suit her own tastes; soon rumors circulated that she had plastered the walls with gold and diamonds.

The queen spent heavily on fashion, luxuries, and gambling, though the country was facing a grave financial crisis and the population was suffering.

She and her court also adopted the English fashion of dresses made of indienne a material banned in France from until to protect local French woolen and silk industries , percale and muslin.

Eventually, Marie Antoinette's reputation was no better than that of the favorites of previous kings. Many French people were beginning to blame her for the degrading economic situation, suggesting the country's inability to pay off its debt was the result of her wasting the crown's money.

On 19 September she appointed her superintendent of her household, [43] [44] an appointment she soon transferred to her new favourite, the duchesse de Polignac.

In , she took under her patronage her former music teacher, the German opera composer Christoph Willibald Gluck , who remained in France until Amidst the atmosphere of a wave of libelles , the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II came to France incognito, using the name Comte de Falkenstein, for a six-week visit during which he toured Paris extensively and was a guest at Versailles.

Suggestions that Louis suffered from phimosis , which was relieved by circumcision , have been discredited.

In the middle of the queen's pregnancy two events occurred which had a profound impact on her later life: the return of her friend, the Swedish diplomat Count Axel von Fersen to Versailles for two years, and her brother's claim to the throne of Bavaria , contested by the Habsburg monarchy and Prussia.

The Peace of Teschen , signed on 13 May , ended the brief conflict, with the queen imposing French mediation at her mother's insistence and Austria's gaining a territory of at least , inhabitants—a strong retreat from the early French position which was hostile towards Austria.

This gave the impression, partially justified, that the queen had sided with Austria against France.

Meanwhile, the queen began to institute changes in court customs. Some of them met with the disapproval of the older generation, such as the abandonment of heavy make-up and the popular wide-hooped panniers.

Repayment of the French debt remained a difficult problem, further exacerbated by Vergennes and also by Marie Antoinette's prodding [ citation needed ] Louis XVI to involve France in Great Britain's war with its North American colonies.

In , the queen played a decisive role in the nomination of Charles Alexandre de Calonne , a close friend of the Polignacs, as Controller-General of Finances , and of the baron de Breteuil as the Minister of the Royal Household , making him perhaps the strongest and most conservative minister of the reign.

Marie Antoinette's second pregnancy ended in a miscarriage early in July , as confirmed by letters between the queen and her mother, although some historians believed that she may have experienced bleeding related to an irregular menstrual cycle, which she mistook for a lost pregnancy.

Empress Maria Theresa died on 29 November in Vienna. Marie Antoinette feared that the death of her mother would jeopardize the Franco-Austrian alliance as well as, ultimately, herself , but her brother, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor , wrote to her that he had no intention of breaking the alliance.

A second visit from Joseph II, which took place in July to reaffirm the Franco-Austrian alliance and also to see his sister, was tainted by false rumours [56] that Marie Antoinette was sending money to him from the French treasury.

Despite the general celebration over the birth of the Dauphin, Marie Antoinette's political influence, such as it was, did greatly benefit Austria.

Finally, the queen was able to obtain her brother's support against Great Britain in the American Revolution and she neutralized French hostility to his alliance with Russia.

On the other hand, both the king and the queen trusted Mme de Polignac completely, gave her a thirteen-room apartment in Versailles and paid her well.

In June , Marie Antoinette's new pregnancy was announced, but on the night of 1—2 November, her 28th birthday, she suffered a miscarriage.

Count Axel von Fersen , after his return from America in June , was accepted into the queen's private society. There were and still claim that the two were romantically involved, [79] but since most of their correspondence has been lost or destroyed, there is no conclusive evidence.

Around this time, pamphlets describing farcical sexual deviance including the Queen and her friends in the court were growing in popularity around the country.

As time went on, these came to focus more and more on the Queen. They described amorous encounters with a wide range of figures, from the Duchess de Polignac to Louis XV.

As these attacks increased, they were connected with the public's dislike of her association with the rival nation of Austria.

It was publicly suggested that her supposed behavior was learned at the court of the rival nation, particularly lesbianism, which was known as the "German vice".

In , the queen was busy with the creation of her " hamlet ", a rustic retreat built by her favored architect, Richard Mique , according to the designs of the painter Hubert Robert.

It was en vogue at the time for nobles to have recreations of small villages on their properties.

It was also significantly smaller and less intricate than many other nobles'. Those on music, often dedicated to her, were the most read, though she also liked to read history.

Initially banned by the king due to its negative portrayal of the nobility, the play was finally allowed to be publicly performed because of the queen's support and its overwhelming popularity at court, where secret readings of it had been given by Marie Antoinette.

The play was a disaster for the image of the monarchy and aristocracy. She wanted to be able to own her own property.

One that was actually hers, to then have the authority to bequeath it to "whichever of my children I wish"; choosing the child she thought could use it rather than it going through patriarchal inheritance laws or whims.

The purchase of Saint-Cloud thus damaged the public's image of the queen even further. On 27 March , Marie Antoinette gave birth to a second son, Louis Charles , who bore the title of duc de Normandie.

Marie Antoinette began to abandon her more carefree activities to become increasingly involved in politics in her role as Queen of France.

Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child. Despite his high clerical position at the Court, she never addressed a word to him.

Mme de La Motte tricked Rohan into buying the necklace as a gift to Marie Antoinette, for him to gain the queen's favor.

Judged by the Parlement, Rohan was found innocent of any wrongdoing and allowed to leave the Bastille. Marie Antoinette, who had insisted on the arrest of the Cardinal, was dealt a heavy personal blow, as was the monarchy, and despite the fact that the guilty parties were tried and convicted, the affair proved to be extremely damaging to her reputation, which never recovered from it.

Suffering from an acute case of depression, the king began to seek the advice of his wife. In her new role and with increasing political power, the queen tried to improve the awkward situation brewing between the assembly and the king.

Continuing deterioration of the financial situation despite cutbacks to the royal retinue and court expenses ultimately forced the king, the queen and the Minister of Finance, Calonne , at the urging of Vergennes, to call a session of the Assembly of Notables , after a hiatus of years.

The assembly was held for the purpose of initiating necessary financial reforms, but the Parlement refused to cooperate. The first meeting took place on 22 February , nine days after the death of Vergennes on 13 February.

Marie Antoinette did not attend the meeting and her absence resulted in accusations that the queen was trying to undermine its purpose. It did not pass any reforms and, instead, fell into a pattern of defying the king.

He began to institute more cutbacks at court while trying to restore the royal absolute power weakened by parliament.

The continued poor financial climate of the country resulted in the 25 May dissolution of the Assembly of Notables because of its inability to function, and the lack of solutions was blamed on the queen.

France's financial problems were the result of a combination of factors: several expensive wars; a large royal family whose expenditures were paid for by the state; and an unwillingness on the part of most members of the privileged classes, aristocracy, and clergy, to help defray the costs of the government out of their own pockets by relinquishing some of their financial privileges.

She had played a decisive role in the disgrace of the reformer ministers of finance, Turgot in , and Jacques Necker first dismissal in The political situation in worsened when, at Marie Antoinette's urging, the Parlement was exiled to Troyes on 15 August.

It further deteriorated when Louis XVI tried to use a lit de justice on 11 November to impose legislation. Finally, on 8 August, Louis XVI announced his intention to bring back the Estates General , the traditional elected legislature of the country, which had not been convened since While from late up to his death in June , Marie Antoinette's primary concern was the continued deterioration of the health of the Dauphin, who suffered from tuberculosis , [] she was directly involved in the exile of the Parlement , the May Edicts, and the announcement regarding the Estates-General.

She did participate in the King Council, the first queen to do this in over years since Marie de' Medici had been named Chef du Conseil du Roi , between and , and she was making the major decisions behind the scene and in the Royal Council.

Marie Antoinette was instrumental in the reinstatement of Jacques Necker as Finance Minister on 26 August, a popular move, even though she herself was worried that it would go against her if Necker proved unsuccessful in reforming the country's finances.

On the eve of the opening of the Estates-General, the queen attended the mass celebrating its return. The death of the Dauphin on 4 June, which deeply affected his parents, was virtually ignored by the French people, [] who were instead preparing for the next meeting of the Estates-General and hoping for a resolution to the bread crisis.

As the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and took the Tennis Court Oath , and as people either spread or believed rumors that the queen wished to bathe in their blood, Marie Antoinette went into mourning for her eldest son.

In addition, she showed her determination to use force to crush the forthcoming revolution. The situation escalated on 20 June as the Third Estate, which had been joined by several members of the clergy and radical nobility, found the door to its appointed meeting place closed by order of the king.

It thus met at the tennis court in Versailles and took the Tennis Court Oath not to separate before it had given a constitution to the nation.

On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution with mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt.

Marie Antoinette, whose life was as much in danger, remained with the king, whose power was gradually being taken away by the National Constituent Assembly.

On 5 October, a crowd from Paris descended upon Versailles and forced the royal family to move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, where they lived under a form of house arrest under the watch of Lafayette's Garde Nationale , while the Comte de Provence and his wife were allowed to reside in the Petit Luxembourg , where they remained until they went into exile on 20 June Marie Antoinette continued to perform charitable functions and attend religious ceremonies, but dedicated most of her time to her children.

She blamed him for his support of the Revolution and did not regret his resignation in Lafayette, one of the former military leaders in the American War of Independence —83 , served as the warden of the royal family in his position as commander-in-chief of the Garde Nationale.

Despite his dislike of the queen—he detested her as much as she detested him and at one time had even threatened to send her to a convent—he was persuaded by the mayor of Paris, Jean Sylvain Bailly , to work and collaborate with her, and allowed her to see Fersen a number of times.

His relationship with the king was more cordial. As a liberal aristocrat, he did not want the fall of the monarchy but rather the establishment of a liberal one, similar to that of the United Kingdom , based on cooperation between the king and the people, as was to be defined in the Constitution of Publication of such calumnies continued to the end, climaxing at her trial with an accusation of incest with her son.

There is no evidence to support the accusations. Like Lafayette, Mirabeau was a liberal aristocrat.

He had joined the Third estate and was not against the monarchy, but wanted to reconcile it with the Revolution. He also wanted to be a minister and was not immune to corruption.

At least , persons participated from all over France, including 18, national guards, with Talleyrand , bishop of Autun , celebrating a mass at the autel de la Patrie "altar of the fatherland".

The king was greeted at the event with loud cheers of "Long live the king! There were even cheers for the queen, particularly when she presented the Dauphin to the public.

Mirabeau sincerely wanted to reconcile the queen with the people, and she was happy to see him restoring much of the king's powers, such as his authority over foreign policy, and the right to declare war.

Over the objections of Lafayette and his allies, the king was given a suspensive veto allowing him to veto any laws for a period of four years.

In March Pope Pius VI had condemned the Civil Constitution of the Clergy , reluctantly signed by Louis XVI, which reduced the number of bishops from to 93, imposed the election of bishops and all members of the clergy by departmental or district assemblies of electors, and reduced the Pope's authority over the Church.

The queen's political ideas and her belief in the absolute power of monarchs were based on France's long-established tradition of the divine right of kings.

This incident fortified her in her determination to leave Paris for personal and political reasons, not alone, but with her family.

Even the king, who had been hesitant, accepted his wife's decision to flee with the help of foreign powers and counter-revolutionary forces.

There had been several plots designed to help the royal family escape, which the queen had rejected because she would not leave without the king, or which had ceased to be viable because of the king's indecision.

Once Louis XVI finally did commit to a plan, its poor execution was the cause of its failure. After many delays, the escape was ultimately attempted on 21 June , but the entire family was arrested less than twenty-four hours later at Varennes and taken back to Paris within a week.

The escape attempt destroyed much of the remaining support of the population for the king.

On the way to the capital they were jeered and insulted by the people as never before. The prestige of the French monarchy had never been at such a low level.

Brought safely back to Paris, they were met with total silence by the crowd. Thanks to Barnave, the royal couple was not brought to trial and was publicly exonerated of any crime in relation with the attempted escape.

Marie Antoinette's first Lady of the Bedchamber, Mme Campan , wrote about what happened to the queen's hair on the night of 21—22 June, " After their return from Varennes and until the storming of the Tuileries on 10 August , the queen, her family and entourage were held under tight surveillance by the Garde Nationale in the Tuileries, where the royal couple was guarded night and day.

Four guards accompanied the queen wherever she went, and her bedroom door had to be left open at night. Her health also began to deteriorate, thus further reducing her physical activities.

On 17 July , with the support of Barnave and his friends, Lafayette's Garde Nationale opened fire on the crowd that had assembled on the Champ de Mars to sign a petition demanding the deposition of the king.

The estimated number of those killed varies between 12 and Lafayette's reputation never recovered from the event and, on 8 October, he resigned as commander of the Garde Nationale.

Their enmity continuing, Marie Antoinette played a decisive role in defeating him in his aims to become the mayor of Paris in November As her correspondence shows, while Barnave was taking great political risks in the belief that the queen was his political ally and had managed, despite her unpopularity, to secure a moderate majority ready to work with her, Marie Antoinette was not considered sincere in her cooperation with the moderate leaders of the French Revolution, which ultimately ended any chance to establish a moderate government.

Marie Antoinette continued to hope that the military coalition of European kingdoms would succeed in crushing the Revolution. She counted most on the support of her Austrian family.

After the death of her brother Joseph in , his successor, Leopold , was willing to support her to a limited degree. Barnave had advised the queen to call back Mercy, who had played such an important role in her life before the Revolution, but Mercy had been appointed to another foreign diplomatic position [ where?

At the end of , ignoring the danger she faced, the Princesse de Lamballe , who was in London, returned to the Tuileries.

As to Fersen, despite the strong restriction imposed on the queen, he was able to see her a final time in February This resulted in the queen being viewed as an enemy, although she was personally against Austrian claims to French territories on European soil.

That summer, the situation was compounded by multiple defeats of the French armies by the Austrians, in part because Marie Antoinette passed on military secrets to them.

Barnave remained the most important advisor and supporter of the queen, who was willing to work with him as long as he met her demands, which he did to a large extent.

Barnave and the moderates comprised about lawmakers in the new Legislative Assembly; the radicals numbered around , and the rest around Initially, the majority was with Barnave, but the queen's policies led to the radicalization of the Assembly and the moderates lost control of the legislative process.

The moderate government collapsed in April to be replaced by a radical majority headed by the Girondins.

The Assembly then passed a series of laws concerning the Church, the aristocracy, and the formation of new national guard units; all were vetoed by Louis XVI.

While Barnave's faction had dropped to members, the new Girondin majority controlled the legislative assembly with members. The two strongest members of that government were Jean Marie Roland , who was minister of interior, and General Dumouriez , the minister of foreign affairs.

Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. Marie Antoinette's actions in refusing to collaborate with the Girondins , in power between April and June , led them to denounce the treason of the Austrian comity, a direct allusion to the queen.

After Madame Roland sent a letter to the king denouncing the queen's role in these matters, urged by the queen, Louis XVI disbanded [ citation needed ] the government, thus losing his majority in the Assembly.

Dumouriez resigned and refused a post in any new government. At this point, the tide against royal authority intensified in the population and political parties, while Marie Antoinette encouraged the king to veto the new laws voted by the Legislative Assembly in This led in turn to a French declaration of war in April , which led to the French Revolutionary Wars and to the events of August , which ended the monarchy.

On 20 June , "a mob of terrifying aspect" broke into the Tuileries, made the king wear the bonnet rouge red Phrygian cap to show his loyalty to the Republic, insulted Marie Antoinette, accusing her of betraying France, and threatened her life.

In consequence, the queen asked Fersen to urge the foreign powers to carry out their plans to invade France and to issue a manifesto in which they threatened to destroy Paris if anything happened to the royal family.

The Brunswick Manifesto , issued on 25 July , triggered the events of 10 August [] when the approach of an armed mob on its way to the Tuileries Palace forced the royal family to seek refuge at the Legislative Assembly.

Ninety minutes later, the palace was invaded by the mob, who massacred the Swiss Guards. A week later, several of the royal family's attendants, among them the Princesse de Lamballe , were taken for interrogation by the Paris Commune.

Transferred to the La Force prison , after a rapid judgment, Marie Louise de Lamballe was savagely killed on 3 September.

Her head was affixed on a pike and paraded through the city to the Temple for the queen to see.

Marie Antoinette was prevented from seeing it, but fainted upon learning of it. On 21 September , the fall of the monarchy was officially declared and the National Convention became the governing body of the French Republic.

The royal family name was downgraded to the non-royal " Capets ". Preparations began for the trial of the king in a court of law. He was found guilty by the Convention, led by the Jacobins who rejected the idea of keeping him as a hostage.

The queen, now called "Widow Capet", plunged into deep mourning. Throughout her imprisonment and up to her execution, Marie Antoinette could count on the sympathy of conservative factions and social-religious groups which had turned against the Revolution, and also on wealthy individuals ready to bribe republican officials to facilitate her escape; [] These plots all failed.

Strict security measures were taken to assure that Marie Antoinette was not able to communicate with the outside world.

Despite these measures, several of her guards were open to bribery and a line of communication was kept with the outside world. After Louis' execution, Marie Antoinette's fate became a central question of the National Convention.

While some advocated her death, others proposed exchanging her for French prisoners of war or for a ransom from the Holy Roman Emperor.

Thomas Paine advocated exile to America. By the end of May, the Girondins had been chased from power. To carry this out, Louis Charles was separated from his mother on 3 July after a struggle during which his mother fought in vain to retain her son, who was handed over to Antoine Simon , a cobbler and representative of the Paris Commune.

Until her removal from the Temple, Marie Antoinette spent hours trying to catch a glimpse of her son, who, within weeks, had been made to turn against her, accusing his mother of wrongdoing.

Leaving the tower she bumped her head against the lintel of a door, which prompted one of her guards to ask her if she was hurt, to which she answered, "No!

Nothing now can hurt me. She was under constant surveillance, with no privacy. At least once she received a visit by a Catholic priest.

Marie Antoinette was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October Some historians believe the outcome of the trial had been decided in advance by the Committee of Public Safety around the time the Carnation Plot fr was uncovered.

This last accusation drew an emotional response from Marie Antoinette, who refused to respond to this charge, instead of appealing to all mothers present in the room; their reaction comforted her since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her.

Early on 16 October, Marie Antoinette was declared guilty of the three main charges against her: depletion of the national treasury, conspiracy against the internal and external security of the State, and high treason because of her intelligence activities in the interest of the enemy; the latter charge alone was enough to condemn her to death.

Preparing for her execution, she had to change clothes in front of her guards. She put on a plain white dress, white being the color worn by widowed queens of France.

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1 thoughts on “Maria antonietta

  1. Ich tue Abbitte, dass sich eingemischt hat... Ich finde mich dieser Frage zurecht. Ist fertig, zu helfen.

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